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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 98-108

Central nervous system sequelae in patients with coronavirus disease 19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies


1 College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
2 College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University; Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Genetics and Inherited Disorders, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
3 College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University; Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
4 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University; The Strategic Technologies Program of the National Plan for Sciences and Technology and Innovation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Ghada Al-Kafaji
College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama; Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Genetics and Inherited Disorders, Manama
Kingdom of Bahrain
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jnsm.jnsm_39_21

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Study Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to identify the neurological sequelae and consequences in patients infected with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), as well as to explore the impact of COVID-19 infection on the central nervous system, and the contributing risk factors to the neurological sequelae associated with the disease. Methodology: The World Health Organization COVID-19 database, which included data from 31 multiple databases, was used in February 2021. Exclusion of noncohort studies was conducted as well as the exclusion of studies with pediatric age groups (<18 years of age). There was an English language restriction. The random-effect models meta-analysis model was used with the DerSimonian and Laird methodology. Results: Nineteen papers, involving a total of 45,181 participants, were judged relevant and contributed to the systematic review and meta-analysis of neurological sequelae in patients with COVID-19. The overall event rate of any given neurological sequelae among all studies was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0%–17.6%). Meta-regression showed an increase of overall neurological sequelae in relation to age, as well as an increased occurrence in females. Stroke had an event rate of 1.8% (95% CI, 0.9%–3.3%). Headache had an event rate of 6.7% (95% CI, 1.9%–20.7%). Delirium had an event rate of 25.2% (95% CI, 13.9%–41.4%). Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) had an event rate of 1.0% (95% CI, 0.4%–2.8%). Conclusions: The prevalence of stroke and ICH was higher than that of the global prevalence. Delirium showed a similar prevalence to the global prevalence. Headache was found to have a lower prevalence compared to the global prevalence.


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