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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 352-355

Association of shisha smoking with acute otitis media in men: A case-control study


1 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Saud University; King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Khalifa Binkhamis
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jnsm.jnsm_173_20

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Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the possible associations between acute otitis media (AOM) and shisha smoking, cigarette smoking, and vaping in adults. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out from August 2019 to April 2020 using a case-control design. The sample consisted of 144 male participants from King Saud University Medical City aged 18–55 years, of whom 72 were cases, i. e., diagnosed by a physician with AOM, and 72 were controls, i.e. diagnosed with a physical injury with no history of AOM. The participants were interviewed over the phone based on a validated questionnaire by the WHO and were evaluated for shisha smoking, cigarettes smoking, and vaping status. Results: Of the 144 patients originally contacted, 136 (67 cases and 69 controls) were included in the analysis. The total number of participants who smoked any type of tobacco was 51 (37.5%). Among the 51 general smokers, 54.9% had a history of AOM with odds ratio of 1.436 (confidence interval [CI] 0.715–2.884, P = 0.308). Among shisha smokers, 70% developed AOM with odds ratio of 2.774 (CI 0.996–7.721, P = 0.045). Among cigarette smokers, 53.6% had a history of AOM with odds ratio of 1.287 (CI 0.617–2.681, P = 0.501). The number of vape users was too low to produce any significant results. Conclusion: The study found a significant association between shisha smoking and AOM among adult men in Riyadh. This finding correlates with what previous studies found about the dangers of tobacco consumption.


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