|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 182-188
Studying the effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized by ulva fasciata aqueous extract against liver toxicity induced by CCl4in rats
Fawzia A Alshubaily, Ebtihaj J Jambi, Sohair M Khojah, Maha J Balgoon, Maryam H Al-Zahrani, Nuha A Alkhattabi
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
|Date of Submission||01-Jan-2020|
|Date of Decision||22-Feb-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||16-Mar-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||02-Jul-2020|
Fawzia A Alshubaily
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Researchers in recent years have been increasingly concerned with the production of synthesizing nanoparticles (NPs) applying plant extracts, as these NPs have low environmental risk and low human toxicity. The present study aimed to use Ulva fasciata (UF) as a reducing agent for the green synthesis of silver NPs (AgNPs) and to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of these NPs against CCl4. Methods: In this study, aqueous extract of UF was used for the reduction of silver nitrate. Results: The results revealed a spherical shape of the AgNPs that are well distributed in solution with a size ranging 9–37 nm and an optical absorption at 430 nm. A total of 28 rats used in this study were randomly divided into four groups each of seven animals; control group, UF AgNPs group (150 mg/kg body weight/20 days), CCl4group (2 ml/kg/20 days of 1:1 v/v mixture of CCl4and olive oil), and CCl4and UF-AgNPs group. The results showed that CCl4injection increases in liver function enzymes, level of urea and creatinine, hepatic oxidative stress (a significant increase in lipid peroxidation with a significant decrease in glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities), and histopathological disorders of liver tissues as compared to control group. Rats received CCl4with UF- AgNPs showed significantly less severe damage and a remarkable improvement in the measured parameters when compared to CCl4rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that the aqueous extract UF can be used as an effective and eco-friendly reducing agent for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNPs capped with UF can be used as a potent antioxidant and a hepatoprotective agent against the biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by CCl4toxicity in the liver tissues.
Keywords: CCl4toxicity, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, Ulva fasciata
|How to cite this article:|
Alshubaily FA, Jambi EJ, Khojah SM, Balgoon MJ, Al-Zahrani MH, Alkhattabi NA. Studying the effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized by ulva fasciata aqueous extract against liver toxicity induced by CCl4in rats. J Nat Sci Med 2020;3:182-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Alshubaily FA, Jambi EJ, Khojah SM, Balgoon MJ, Al-Zahrani MH, Alkhattabi NA. Studying the effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized by ulva fasciata aqueous extract against liver toxicity induced by CCl4in rats. J Nat Sci Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Aug 12];3:182-8. Available from: https://www.jnsmonline.org/text.asp?2020/3/3/182/288823
| Introduction|| |
The green biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) employing either biological microorganism or plant extracts has emerged as a simple cost-effective and environment-friendly method.,, This process is scaled up for large-scale synthesis alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nanomaterials. Furthermore, there is no need to use high pressure, energy, temperature, and toxic chemicals during the green biosynthesis of NPs. Different types of metals can be used for the production of NPs with a dimension <100 nm including gold, silver, copper, and zinc, silver NPs (AgNPs) have attracted great attention due to their specialized magnetic, electrical, and optical properties. AgNPs can be considered as powerful antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant agents  and have a wide range of applications in different fields such as agriculture, medicine, and industry.
Green biosynthesis of AgNPs by algal extract is more advantageous than other biological processes due to rapid growth rates of algae, high biomass production in a short time, cost-effective, eco-safe, and helpful for human therapeutic use.Ulvafasciata (UF) (sea lettuce) is one of the green seaweeds that composed of highly active contents that have antitumor, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, and antimicrobial potentials. The antioxidant activity of UF could be arising from bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and polyphenols that can directly or indirectly induce inhibition or suppression of free radical generation. In addition, these green algae can be used as an effective and eco-friendly reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs.
Treatment of liver disorders by the usage of synthetic drugs could be associated with risk of relapses and danger of side effects. Therefore, natural products can be used as an effective, safe, and alternative therapy for the treatment of liver diseases without any side effects. CCl4 is one of the toxic agents that can be used to induce liver damage and can be used for the evaluation of hepatoprotective agents. Trichloromethyl free radicals formed during CCl4 metabolism can lead to oxidative damage by reacting with biological substances, such as fatty acids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Thus, this article aimed to use UF as a reducing agent for the biosynthesis of AgNPs and investigation of their hepatoprotective effect against CCl4.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Chemicals and reagents were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA).
Collection and preparation of Ulva fasciata
The algal sample [Figure 1] was manually collected from shallow water besides the shore of Abu-Qur coast Alexandria, Egypt, and was identified according to Aleem  and Coppejans et al. Samples were immediately brought to the laboratory in new plastic bags containing seawater, washed thoroughly with tap water, and filtered seawater to remove extraneous materials. Algal material was shade-dried for 5 days and oven-dried at 60°C until constant weight was obtained, then was ground into fine powder using electric mixer, and stored at 0°C  for future use.
Preparation of Ulva fasciata aqueous extracts
One gram of dry powder UF was added to 100 mL distilled deionized water, boiled for 1 h, and then filtrated.
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles
AgNPs were prepared by the reduction of Ag + ions to Ag 0 according to the methods of Devi and Bhimba. 10 mL of UF aqueous extract was added slowly to 90 mL of freshly prepared 0.1 mM of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with stirring and heating at 40°C until reduction of silver ions (Ag +) and changing the color were observed. Bio-reduction of Ag + ions in the aqueous extracts and the formation of AgNPs were monitored using spectroscopic analysis at 300–700 nm. Morphological analysis of the size, shape, and the AgNPs state was monitored using transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. A drop of aqueous AgNPs sample was loaded on carbon-coated copper grid and allowed to dry completely for an hour at room temperature. The clear microscopic views were observed and documented in different ranges of magnifications as in [Figure 2], showing the summarized steps.
|Figure 2: Steps for the preparation of Ulva fasciata aqueous extracts and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles|
Click here to view
The experiment was conducted on 28 male albino rats (12 ± 2 weeks old; 170 ± 20 g body weight [b.wt]). Rats were acclimated to controlled laboratory conditions for 2 weeks. The chosen animals were housed in plastic cages with good aerated covers at normal atmospheric temperature (25°C ± 5°C) as well as 12 h daily normal light periods. Moreover, they were maintained on stock rodent diet and tap water that were allowed adlibitum. This study was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication No. 85-23, 1996). The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of King Fahd Medical Research Center. All surgery was performed under diethyl ether anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering.
Animals (28 rats) were randomly divided into four groups, each of seven rats as follows:
Control group: Rats fed on a balanced diet containing 2% olive oil for 20 days. UF-AgNPs group: Rats were administrated daily by NPs UF aqueous extract by gastric intubation at dose level of 150 mg/kg b.wt. CCl4 group: Rats were treated daily with hepatotoxic agent CCl4(CCl4 was solved in olive oil with the ratio of 1:1 v/v and was injected to rats intraperitoneally at dose 2 ml/kg) for 20 days. CCl4 and UF-AgNPs: Rats received UF-AgNPs (150 mg/kg b.wt/day) along with intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (2 ml/kg of 1:1 v/v mixture of CCl4 and olive oil) for 20 days as in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Animal groups as divided and used in the study with planned treatments for 20 days|
Click here to view
By the end of the experimental periods, animals from each group were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose of treatment. Blood samples were collected through heart puncture and centrifuged to obtain serum for biochemical analysis. In addition, liver tissue was removed for biochemical investigation and histological examination.
The activity of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), urea, and serum creatinine was measured according to previously documented methods.,,, Liver was dissected, thoroughly washed with ice-cold 0.9% NaCl, weighed, minced, and homogenized (10% w/v) using 66 mmol/L chilled phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The tissue homogenates were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min, and the supernatants were used to estimate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT).,,,,,
For histopathological study, the tissue samples were taken rapidly from each rat and fixed in 10% formalin. All the samples were dehydrated in ascending grades of ethanol, cleared in butanol, and embedded in parablast. Sections of 5–6 μm thick sections were obtained and stained with the following stains:
- Hematoxylin and eosin staining for general histological studies
- Masson's trichrome stain for collagen fibers.
Results were presented as mean ± standard error (n = 7). Experimental data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's multiple range test was used to determine the significant differences between means. Statistical analyses were performed using computer program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 22; Chicago, IL, USA).
Differences between means were considered significant at P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
The bio-reduction of Ag+ ions was visually confirmed by changing the color of reaction mixture from colorless to brownish-yellow after 3 min of reaction. The brown color increased by increasing the incubation period [Figure 3].
|Figure 3: Changing the color of reaction mixture after adding Ulva fasciata aqueous extracts to silver nitrate (colorless)|
Click here to view
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis
The bio-synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analysis. The results obtained that the absorption spectrum of reaction mixture at different wavelengths ranging between 400 and 500 nm revealed a peak at 430 nm [Figure 4].
|Figure 4: Ultraviolet-visible spectra showing absorbance for silver nanoparticle synthesized using Ulva fasciata|
Click here to view
Transmission electron microscope
The result of TEM analysis of AgNPs [Figure 5] showed that UF aqueous extract strongly affected the size and shape of the AgNPs. In addition, the results revealed that AgNPs bio-synthesized by UF have spherical shape and well distributed in solution, and the range of particles size is 9–37 nm.
|Figure 5: Transmission electron microscopic image of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized (9–37 nm) by the reduction of silver nitrate ions using Ulva fasciata aqueous extract|
Click here to view
Results of biological study
The results revealed that CCl4-administered rats showed a significant elevation of liver enzyme activity markers: AST, ALT, and GGT as compared to the control, whereas treatment of rats with UF-AgNPs and CCl4 resulted in a significant reduction in those markers compared to CCl4 rats [Table 2].
|Table 2: Effect of Ulva fasciata-silver nanoparticles on liver enzymes of rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride|
Click here to view
The data in [Table 3] indicate that the serum levels of urea and creatinine were significantly increased in the CCl4-treated rats as compared to the control. Treatment of CCl4-administered rats with UF-AgNPs showed significantly decreased levels of serum urea and creatinine as compared to the CCl4-injected rats [Table 3].
|Table 3: Effect of Ulva fasciata.silver nanoparticles on kidney function of rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride|
Click here to view
CCl4 intoxication resulted in significant increases in MDA and XO and decreases in GSH level and the activity of XDH, SOD, and CAT of hepatic tissues compared to control rats. Treatment of CCl4-intoxicated rats with UF- AgNPs resulted in significant reduction of MDA and XO activity with remarkable elevation in GSH level and antioxidant enzymes relative to CCl4 group [Table 4].
|Table 4: Effect of Ulva fasciata-silver nanoparticles on antioxidant status of rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride|
Click here to view
Histopathological examination of liver tissues revealed that control rats have normal liver architecture with central vein, and cytoplasm and prominent nucleus and nucleolus were preserved [Figure 6]a. The same observation was observed when the experimental animals were treated by UF-AgNPs [Figure 6]b. However, the liver tissues of CCl4-intoxicated rats were characterized by inflammatory cell collection, scattered inflammation across liver parenchyma, focal necrosis, and swelling up of vascular endothelial cells [Figure 6]c. In CCl4-treated rats with UF-AgNPs, the CCl4 toxicity appeared to be significantly prevented as revealed by the preserved cytoplasm of the hepatic cells. This also caused a marked decrease in the number of inflammatory cells [Figure 6]d.
|Figure 6: Histological structure of a rat liver (H and E, ×100). (a) Control rats with normal liver lobular architecture, well brought out central vein and prominent nucleus and nucleolus; (b) rat treated with Ulva fasciata-silver nanoparticles showing the normal appearance|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The green alga UF is composed of important nutritional components with high therapeutic value. It can be used for biosynthesis of AgNPs., The results indicated that the color change of the reaction mixture from colorless to brownish-yellow was noticed obviously after 3 min of reaction and the intensity of brown color increased by the time. The formation of brown color can be considered as a sign of reduction of Ag+ to AgNPs by UF aqueous extract., Sajidha Parveen and Lakshmi  concluded that the reduction time of AgNO3 by red algae (Amphiroa fragilissima) was visually evident from the color change (brownish yellow) of reaction mixtures within 20 min. It has been reported that the appearances of brown color in the reaction may be due to excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and reduction of AgNO3.,
UV-visible spectrophotometer analysis recorded that the SPR of AgNPs bio-synthesized by UF aqueous extract produced a maximum peak at 430 nm. A study had reported that the UV-visible spectroscopy of AgNPs from Murraya koenigii, Zea mays, and phycoerythrin produced an absorption peak at 420–440 nm and thus confirmed the formation of NPs. Other studies concluded and that the frequency and width of the SPR depend on the size and shape of the metal NPs as well as on the dielectric constant of the metal itself and the surrounding medium.,,
Our results of TEM showed that the micrograph of AgNPs by UF aqueous extract has spherical shaped, well distribution in solution with particles size ranged from 9 to 37 nm. It has been suggested that the formation, shape, size, and distribution of NPs depends on physiochemical properties, such as temperature, time, pH, optical, and concentration of the substrate.,, The studies done by Abirami and Kowsalya, Rajesh et al., and Owaid  found that the AgNPs synthesis by UF has spherical shape and an average size ranging from 28 to 41 nm. Sangeetha and Saravanan  and Hamouda et al. reported that the average size of AgNPs synthesized by Ulvalactuca was 20 nm and spherical in shape. The bioactive constituents of UF can act as both reducing and capping agents that form stable and shape-controlled AgNPs in the solution.,,
This study revealed that the injection of rats with CCl4 resulted in severe liver damage associated with elevation of the serum activity of ALT, AST, GGT, and levels of serum urea and creatinine when compared to the normal group. Toxicity of CCL4 induces change of transition function of liver cells and increase membrane permeability which leads to the leakage of liver enzymes into extracellular space.,,, Studies done by Khan and Siddique , and Elsawy et al. showed that elevation in the plasma levels of urea and creatinine induced by CCl4 can be attributed to the damage of nephron structural integrity.
The present investigation demonstrated that CCl4 toxicity induced a significant elevation in the levels of MDA and XO and a significant reduction in GSH level and the activity of XDH, SOD, and CAT of hepatic tissues compared to control rats. CCl4 affects the cytochrome P450 in the liver tissues and produces trichloromethyl radicals that can react with polysaturated fatty acids and leads to the formation of lipid peroxides.,,,, In addition, overformation of these radicals disrupts the balance between ROS production and antioxidant defense system associated with the disruption of cellular functions through some events and causes liver damage and necrosis.,,
Our results indicated that the AgNPs capped with UF may protect against CCl4-induced toxicity in rats by decreasing the activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGT), level of urea and creatinine, by reducing level of hepatic MDA and XO activity, and by increasing the GSH level and the activity of XDH, SOD, and CAT compared to CCl4-injected rats. The effect of AgNPs on liver enzymes could be related to the fact that AgNPs have affinity for thiol (-SH) group within the protein molecule causing change in the functional state of proteins and inactivate amino transaminases.,, The hepatoprotective activity of UF-AgNPs could be attributed to active components of UF aqueous extract such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and polyphenols that have free radical scavenging activity  and can protect the liver cells from damage induced by CCl4. Rizk et al. concluded that sulfated polysaccharides of UF can be regarded as potential anti-peroxidative, atheroprotective, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic agents and may be used in the protection of ROS-induced oxidative damage, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerotic complications. In addition, the authors reported that UF polysaccharides alleviate the oxidative stress by its inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation by reducing the formation of MDA and enhance the antioxidant defense via increasing GSH retention.
| Conclusion|| |
Through the results of our study, it has been confirmed that the aqueous extract of UF can be used as an effective and eco-friendly reducing agent for AgNO3 and producing AgNPs with high stability, spherical shape, well distribution in solution, size range between 9 and 37 nm, and absorption peak at 400–500 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. Furthermore, the results concluded that AgNPs capped with UF can be used as a potent antioxidant and a hepatoprotective agent that can significantly attenuate the histopathological alterations induced by CCl4 toxicity in the liver tissues.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Prasad R. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in photosynthetic plants. J Nanopart 2014;2014:8.
Akbar v, Tauseef I, Subhan F, Sultana N, Khan I, Ahmed U. An overview of the plant-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and their antimicrobial potential. Inorg Nano-Metal Chem 2020;50:257-71.
Purohit J, Chattopadhyay A, Singh NK. Green synthesis of microbial nanoparticle: Approaches to application. In: Microbial Nanobionics. Cham: Springer; 2019. p. 35-60.
Hamed SM, Abdel-Alim MM, Abdel-Raouf N, Ibraheem IB. Biosynthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles using the CyanobacteriumAnabaena variabilis
. Life Sci J 2017;14:25-30.
Leela K, Devi CA. A study on the applications of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract and purified secondary metabolites of seaweed Hypnea cervicornis.
IOSR J Pharmacy 2017;7:46-61.
Abd El Raouf N, Hozyen W, Abd El Neem M, Ibraheem I. Potentiality of silver nanoparticles prepared by Ulva fasciata
as anti-nephrotoxicity in albino-rats. Egypt J Botany 2017;57:479-94.
Mohapatra L, Bhattamishra SK, Panigrahy R, Parida S, Pati P. Antidiabetic effect of Sargassum wightii
and Ulva fasciata
in high fat diet and multi low dose streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. UK J Pharm Biosci 2016;4:13-23.
Wang G, Li Z, Li H, Li L, Li J, Yu C. Metabolic profile changes of CCl4
-liver fibrosis and inhibitory effects of Jiaqi Ganxian granule. Molecules 2016;21. pii: E698.
Mahmoodzadeh Y, Mazani M, Rezagholizadeh L. Hepatoprotective effect of methanolic Tanacetum parthenium
extract on CCl4
-induced liver damage in rats. Toxicol Rep 2017;4:455-62.
Aleem A. Contributions to the study of the marine algae of the Red Sea. Bull Fac Sci KAU Jeddah 1978;2:99-118.
Coppejans E, Leliaert F, Dargent O, Gunasekara R, De Clerck O. Sri Lankan Seaweeds: Methodologies and Field Guide to the Dominant Species. Belgian Development Cooperation Brussels; 2009.
Devi J, Bhimba B. Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by the seaweed Ulva lactucain vitro
. Open Access Scientific Reports 2012;1:242. [doi: 10.4172/scientificreports].
Ates M, Dugo MA, Demir V, Arslan Z, Tchounwou PB. Effect of copper oxide nanoparticles to sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus
) at different salinities. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2014;9:369-77.
Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
Coulombe JJ, Favreau L. A new simple semimicro method for colorimetric determination of urea. Clin Chem 1963;9:102-8.
Husdan H, Rapoport A. Estimation of creatinine by the Jaffe reaction. A comparison of three methods. Clin Chem 1968;14:222-38.
Rosalki SB. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. In: Advances in Clinical Chemistry. Vol. 17. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1975. p. 53-107.
Gross RT, Bracci R, Rudolph N, Schroeder E, Kochen JA. Hydrogen peroxide toxicity and detoxification in the erythrocytes of newborn infants. Blood 1967;29:481-93.
Minami M, Yoshikawa H. A simplified assay method of superoxide dismutase activity for clinical use. Clin Chim Acta 1979;92:337-42.
Yoshioka T, Kawada K, Shimada T, Mori M. Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against activated-oxygen toxicity in the blood. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979;135:372-6.
Aebi H. Catalase in vitro
. Methods Enzymol 1984;105:121-6.
IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Hamouda R, El-Mongy MA, Eid KF. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Ulva fasciata
extracts as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer. Int J Pharmacol 2018;14:359-68.
Prakash E, Jeyadoss T, Velavan S.In vitro
hepatoprotective activity of Azima tetracantha leaf extract and silver nanoparticle in hepatocytes. Pharm Chem 2015;7:381-90.
Negm MA, Ibrahim HA, Shaltout NA, Shawky HA, Abdel-Mottaleb M, Hamdona S. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine algae extract and their antibacterial activity, Sciences 2018;8:957-70.
Sajidha Parveen K, Lakshmi D. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using red algae, Amphiroa fragilissima
and its antibacterial potential against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Int J Curr Sci 2016;19:93-100.
Roseline TA, Murugan M, Sudhakar M, Arunkumar K. Nanopesticidal potential of silver nanocomposites synthesized from the aqueous extracts of red seaweeds. Environ Technol Innov 2019;13:82-93.
Deb S. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Murraya koenigii
green curry leaves, zea mays (baby corn) and Its antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2014;6:91-6.
Atanda S, Pessu P, Ihionu G, Oladeji O. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-silver nanoparticle. NISEB J 2019;13:4.
Kasthuri J, Veerapandian S, Rajendiran N. Biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using apiin as reducing agent. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2009;68:55-60.
El-Naggar NE, Hussein MH, El-Sawah AA. Phycobiliprotein-mediated synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles, characterization,in vitro
assessment of anticancer activities. Sci Rep 2018;8:1-20.
Campos A, Troc N, Cottancin E, Pellarin M, Weissker HC, Lermé J, et al.
Plasmonic quantum size effects in silver nanoparticles are dominated by interfaces and local environments. Nature Phys 2019;15:275-80.
Emam AN, Mansour AS, Mohamed MB, Mohamed GG. Plasmonic hybrid nanocomposites for plasmon-enhanced fluorescence and their biomedical applications. In: Nanoscience in Medicine. Vol. 1. Cham: Springer; 2020. p. 459-88.
Abirami R, Kowsalya S. Ulva fasciata
nanoparticles characterization and its anticancer activity. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;4:1164-75.
Cui ML, Chen YS, Xie QF, Yang DP, Han MY. Synthesis, properties and applications of noble metal iridium nanomaterials. Coord Chem Rev 2019;387:450-62.
Karimian A, Parsian H, Majidinia M, Rahimi M, Mir SM, Kafil HS, et al.
Nanocrystalline cellulose: Preparation, physicochemical properties, and applications in drug delivery systems. Int J Biol Macromol 2019;133:850-9.
Sangeetha N, Saravanan K. Biogenic silver nanoparticles using marine seaweed (Ulva lactuca
) and evaluation of its antibacterial activity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014;2:99-102.
Rajesh S, Raja DP, Rathi J, Sahayaraj K. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ulva fasciata
(Delile) ethyl acetate extract and its activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. Malvacearum.
Owaid MN. Silver nanoparticles as unique nano-drugs. In: Materials for Biomedical Engineering. Elsevier; 2019. p. 545-80.
Chahardoli A, Karimi N, Fattahi A. Biosynthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Nigella arvensis
seed extract. Iran J Pharm Res 2017;16:1167.
Hamouda RA, Yousuf WE, Abdeen EE, Mohamed A. Biological and chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Characterization, MIC and antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. J Chem Pharm Res 2019;11:1-12.
Fu Y, Zheng S, Lin J, Ryerse J, Chen A. Curcumin protects the rat liver from CCl4-caused injury and fibrogenesis by attenuating oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. Molec Pharmacol 2008;73:399-409.
Massironi A, Morelli A, Grassi L, Puppi D, Braccini S, Maisetta G, et al
. Ulvan as novel reducing and stabilizing agent from renewable algal biomass: Application to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 2019;203:310-21.
Khan MR, Siddique F. Antioxidant effects of Citharexylum spinosum
in CCl4 induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2012;64:349-55.
Bellassoued K, Ghrab F, Hamed H, Kallel R, van Pelt J, Lahyani A, et al
. Protective effect of essential oil of Cinnamomum verum
bark on hepatic and renal toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019;44:606-18.
Yusufoglu HS, Alam A, Zaghloul AM. Isolation of astragaloside-IV and cyclocephaloside-I from Astragalus gummifera
and evaluation of astragaloside-IV on CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Asian J Biol Sci 2015;8:1-15.
Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Bokhari J. Prevention of CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity with Sonchus asper
in rat. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:2469-76.
Elsawy H, Badr GM, Sedky A, Abdallah BM, Alzahrani AM, Abdel-Moneim AM. Rutin ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatorenal toxicity and hypogonadism in male rats. PeerJ 2019;7:e7011.
Adeyemi OS, Whiteley CG. Interaction of nanoparticles with arginine kinase from Trypanosoma brucei
: Kinetic and mechanistic evaluation. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;62:450-6.
Recknagel RO, Glende EA Jr., Dolak JA, Waller RL. Mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Pharmacol Therap 1989;43:139-54.
Koop DR. Oxidative and reductive metabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1. FASEB J 1992;6:724-30.
Risal P, Hwang PH, Yun BS, Yi HK, Cho BH, Jang KY, et al
. Hispidin analogue davallialactone attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Nat Prod 2012;75:1683-9.
Cederbaum AI. Role of cytochrome P450 and oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury. Reactive Oxygen Species 2017;4:303-19.
Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007;39:44-84.
Sánchez-Valle V, Chavez-Tapia NC, Uribe M, Méndez-Sánchez N. Role of oxidative stress and molecular changes in liver fibrosis: A review. Curr Med Chem 2012;19:4850-60.
Rizk MZ, El-sherbiny M, Borai IH, Ezz MK, Aly HF, Matloub AA, et al.
Sulphated polysaccharides (SPS) from the green alga Ulva fasciata
extract modulates liver and kidney function in high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci2016;8:43-55.
Ismail M, Gul S, Khan MA, Khan M. Plant mediated green synthesis of anti-microbial silver nanoparticles – A review on recent trends. Rev Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016;5:119-35.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]